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Volume XXXV-XXXVI (35-36)

Meteorologiczne, hydrologiczne i geomorfologiczne zjawiska ekstremalne w południowej Polsce.  

 

Tadeusz Ziętara 

Przedmowa
(Introduction)

Ziętara T., 2004-2005, Przedmowa, Folia Geographica ser. Geographica-Physica, vol. XXXV-XXXVI (35-36): 5-9 (in polish).

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Małgorzata Bajgier-Kowalska 

Rola gospodarczej działalności człowieka w powstawaniu i odmładzaniu osuwisk w Karpatach Fliszowych
(The role of human activity in the incidence and reactivation of landslides in the flysch Carpathians)

Bajgier-Kowalska M., 2004-2005, Rola gospodarczej działalności człowieka w powstawaniu i odmładzaniu osuwisk w Karpatach Fliszowych, Folia Geographica ser. Geographica-Physica, vol. XXXV-XXXVI (35-36): 11-30 (in polish).

Keywords: landslide, human activity, flysch Carpathians

Summary: The impact of landslides on the environment in mountain areas is considerable, despite the fact that they affect the slopes only locally. Since landslides cause loss of property and infrastructure, their destructive role is undisputable. Slope failures lead to the levelling of mountain relief, often forming large flat surfaces and hollows. As shown by W. Margielewski (1995, 1999, 2000) these flat surfaces in the uppermost parts of the slopes originally constituted attractive locations for settlements as well as grazing and cultivation (Photo 1).
The problem of human impact on the occurrence and reactivation of old landslides has not been well-recognized in the literature (Briggs et al. 1975; Nielsen and Turner 1975; Malgot 1980; Nemčok 1982; Panizza 2000; Malgot and Baliak 2002).
The high number of artificially induced slope failures in highly developed areas is becoming one of the main agents changing the natural environment. The problem was exacerbated after the Second World War with the introduction of heavy building on mountain slopes and the resulting negative effects of overloading (Fig. 1). During the floods of 1958 and 1960, on the slopes with heavy building several landslides were reactivated, including the ones on the slopes of Ochodzita in Brama Koniakowska (Fig. 2) and on the right side of the Soła valley in Międzybrodzie Kobiernickie, Beskid Mały Mts where some new buildings were damaged.
In the years 1996-2002, numerous landslides were triggered causing damage and loss to settlements and transport infrastructure (Photo 2). Many of the old landslides were reactivated, largely due to anthropogenic impact. Of the 1,300 landslides recorded in the catchment of Łososina, Beskid Wyspowy Mts in that period, 34% resulted directly from human activity; several others developed due to both natural and anthropogenic factors (Gorczyca 2004). Extensive catastrophic landslides occurred in July 2001. Total area of reactivated landslides on the slopes of Lasek, Beskid Makowski, amounted to 15% of the surface subject to landsliding. The most catastrophic landslide formed on the slopes of Pierchałówka in Lachowice (Fig. 3, 4, Photo 3), where 14 buildings and a road were destroyed. In 2002, another four buildings were destroyed when the eastern part of the landslide was reactivated (Photo 4). Large catastrophic landslides occurred in Zawoja-Gołynia, Zawoja-Przysłop and on the slopes of Falkowa in Nowy Sącz (Rączkowski and Mrozek 2002) affecting numerous houses and roads.
In the years 1996-2002, construction of various road and railway structures resulted in reactivation of old landslides. High density of landslides was typical of the Rożnów Foothills (Photo 5, 6) with 83 forms covering 20% of the total landslide area.
Several landslides resulted from undercutting of valley sides susceptible to slope failures (Fig. 5). The phenomena took place during the construction of roads and hillside grading for building purposes. Particularly noteworthy is the landslide in Wierchomla Wielka, in the Jaworzyna Krynicka range, which formed in 1876 as a result of valley side undercutting during the construction of the Nowy Sącz-Leluchów railway. The landslide has been recurrently activated, largely due to the vibrations from railway and road traffic (Fig. 6) and in spite of the retaining walls protecting railway tracks and the Piwniczna-Muszyna road. The last significant failure took place in 2001. Another large landslide occurred on the left side of the Dunajec valley at Rożnów, following slope undercutting during reservoir dam construction. Slope failure of similar size was reactivated on the left side of the Soła valley during the construction of a dam at Tresna.

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Dominika Wrońska 

Wpływ procesów osuwiskowych na działalność człowieka oraz szatę roślinną Magurskiego Parku Narodowego
(The influence of landsliding on human activity and vegetation cover in Magura National Park)

Wrońska D., 2004-2005, Wpływ procesów osuwiskowych na działalność człowieka oraz szatę roślinną Magurskiego Parku Narodowego, Folia Geographica ser. Geographica-Physica, vol. XXXV-XXXVI (35-36): 31-52 (in polish).

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Roman Malarz 

Geomorfologiczne skutki działania zapór wodnych w okresach powodziowych w dolinie Soły
(Geomorphic effects of reservoir operation during floods in the Soła valley)

Malarz R., 2004-2005, Geomorfologiczne skutki działania zapór wodnych w okresach powodziowych w dolinie Soły, Folia Geographica ser. Geographica-Physica, vol. XXXV-XXXVI (35-36): 53-64 (in polish).

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Wojciech Chełmicki, Tomasz Bieńkowski 

Przepływy niżówkowe w dorzeczu górnego Dunajca w 2003 r. na tle wielolecia 1951-2003
(Low flows in the upper part of the Dunajec drainage basin in 2003 compared with the period of 1951-2003.)

Chełmicki W., Bieńkowski T., 2004-2005, Przepływy niżówkowe w dorzeczu górnego Dunajca w 2003 r. na tle wielolecia 1951-2003, Folia Geographica ser. Geographica-Physica, vol. XXXV-XXXVI (35-36): 65-75 (in polish).

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Jan Lach 

Skutki powodzi w lipcu 2001 r. w powiecie nowosądeckim
(Results of flood of july 2001 in the Nowy Sącz district.)

Lach J., 2004-2005, Skutki powodzi w lipcu 2001 r. w powiecie nowosądeckim, Folia Geographica ser. Geographica-Physica, vol. XXXV-XXXVI (35-36): 77-91 (in polish).

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Ewa Łupikasza, Zuzanna Bielec-Bąkowska 

Synoptyczne uwarunkowania dni ekstremalnych pod względem termicznym w Małopolsce w drugiej połowie XX wieku
(Synoptic conditions of the thermal extreme days in Małopolska in the second half of the 20th century )

Łupikasza E., Bielec-Bąkowska Z., 2004-2005, Synoptyczne uwarunkowania dni ekstremalnych pod względem termicznym w Małopolsce w drugiej połowie XX wieku, Folia Geographica ser. Geographica-Physica, vol. XXXV-XXXVI (35-36): 93-112 (in polish).

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Zuzanna Bielec-Bąkowska, Dorota Matuszko 

Warunki meteorologiczne sprzyjające występowaniu burz w Krakowie i w okolicach.
(Meteorological conditions of thunderstorms occurrence in Cracow and its surroundings)

Bielec-Bąkowska Z., Matuszko D., 2004-2005, Warunki meteorologiczne sprzyjające występowaniu burz w Krakowie i w okolicach., Folia Geographica ser. Geographica-Physica, vol. XXXV-XXXVI (35-36): 113-131 (in polish).

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Katarzyna Piotrowicz, Rafał Bąkowski, Marek Kozłowski 

Energia wiatru w wybranych sytuacjach synoptycznych w południowo-wschodniej Polsce
(The energy of wind in chosen synoptic situations in south-eastern Poland)

Piotrowicz K., Bąkowski R., Kozłowski M., 2004-2005, Energia wiatru w wybranych sytuacjach synoptycznych w południowo-wschodniej Polsce, Folia Geographica ser. Geographica-Physica, vol. XXXV-XXXVI (35-36): 133-151 (in polish).

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Janina Trepińska 

Pionowy profil prędkości wiatru przyziemnego.
(Vertical profile of wind speed at the ground elevation)

Trepińska J., 2004-2005, Pionowy profil prędkości wiatru przyziemnego., Folia Geographica ser. Geographica-Physica, vol. XXXV-XXXVI (35-36): 153-166 (in polish).

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