Przemiany środowiska na Pogórzu Karpackim
Chełmicki W. (red.), 2001, Przemiany środowiska na Pogórzu Karpackim, t. 1, IGiGP UJ Kraków.
Recenzje: Bronisław Górz, Bronisław Janiec, Kazimierz Klimek, Andrzej Kostrzewski, Adam Kotarba, Tadeusz Niedźwiedź
Język publikacji: polski
Zastosowanie GiS do oceny morfodynamiki obszaru użytkowanego rolniczo
Wykorzystanie map historycznych, przetworzonych przy użyciu GiS do oceny zmian użytkowania ziemi na pogórzu wiśnickim
Rola stoków i den dolin w odprowadzaniu zawiesiny ze zlewni pogórskiej
The role of slopes and valley floor in transporting suspended material from foothill catchments
Summary: This article describes the role of slopes and valley floors in transporting suspended material from foothill catchments. The work was based on research on suspended material transport in the channels of the Stara Rzeka and Dworski Potok in the years 1987-1991. Also used were measurements of sediment removal in slope catena (Święchowicz 1998, 2000) and mapping of the catastrophic effects of precipitation. Along the edge of the Carpathian Foothills occur areas of long convex-concave slopes and, less frequently, convex slopes. However, dominating the landscape are slopes with edges and agricultural terraces that indicate former agricultural plots on these slopes. Their profile is predominantly irregular, descending downslope in stairstep fashion with convex, concave, and flat segments (Photo 2). The river valleys are broad, flat and covered by grass. They are cut by deep, steep-sloped channels in which the stream beds are formed. Most of the slopes merge gently into the valleys, without clear transitional areas. Footslope prolluvial plains are found throughout and are a major element of terrain formation (Fig. 1). Within a catchment, sediment removal takes place episodically and occurs even on very gentle slopes. However, the morphogenetic effectiveness of the process varies with time and place, and depends on both meteorological conditions and the nature of the terrain. The amount of sediment removed depends on precipitation, infiltration capacity of the soil, and distance from the catchment boundary but the effects vary; amount of sediment can both increase and decrease at the bottom of the slope during a single flow event. The removed material undergoes stages of movement at the bottom of a slope (Figs. 2 and 3). The number of days with flow and sediment removal consists of only 3% for the tree-covered edge and 6.1% for pasture. On slopes where agriculture takes place in a sequence of plots that are used differently and are separated from one another by elevated boundary strips, individual plots usually function separately from one another. Movement of material occurs within the plot and accumulates at the downslope portion of the plot at the transverse boundary strip, at the top of the next plot downslope (Phots 3 and 4). In effect it leads to the creation of a distinct flattening at the boundary of the plot and forms an irregular slope profile. Material is carried from the plot directly adjacent to the valley floor and is deposited within footslope prolluvial plains and on the valley floor in various forms of large prolluvial fans. The range of material transport depends above all on the land use of the plots adjacent to the valley floor (Photo 1). The accumulation of material on a slope used for agriculture forms a repeating, elongated stairstep profile, leading to exaggerated morphologic contrasts in cultivated slope profile. However material deposited at the foot of the slopes and in the valley floor leads to a muting of the morphologic contrasts between slopes and valley floors. During the study period 1987-1991, from 276 (1990) to1694.9 (1987) tons of material were transported from the Stara Rzeka catchment, and from 0.582 (1990) to 0.906 (1987) tons were transported from the Dworski Potok catchment. The amount of suspended material provided by the Dworski Potok basin to the Stara Rzeka channel in the years 1987-1991 constituted from 0.05 to 0.21% of the total suspended load transpor-ted by the Stara Rzeka. Suspended material comes from the immediate environment, and from the erosional channel cutting through the valley in which the Stara Rzeka flows. The channels are deeply incised and winding, and have a large number of bank undercuts. Thus, material is transported into the channel even when water stages are not at their highest. The existence of these channel is simultaneously morphologic proof of the origin of the suspended material and is disproportionate in amount between tributaries and the main stream. Material washed down the slopes used for agriculture accumulates at the foot of the slopes and within the flat grassy areas of the river valley. Suspended material removed from a foothill catchment therefore comes from a small portion (about 1%) of its area. The foothill catchment system is characterised by a weak connection between its two subsystems: the slope system and the river valley system. Interaction between the two subsystems occurs episodically and most often locally. Then most of the material is deposited on the slopes and the footslope prolluvial plains. These various prolluvial and flat valley floors are a zone weakly separating the slope and channel subsystems. This zone can be treated as a third subsystem, strongly influencing the circulation of material in the catchment. It is simultaneously a zone in which most of the deposited material is transported from the slopes. Material rarely is transported beyond this zone and only during extreme events.
Słowa kluczowe: obieg materii w zlewni, spłukiwanie, Pogórze Karpackie
Słowa kluczowe (w języku angielskim): matter circulation in a catchment, slope-wash, Carpathian Foothills
Chełmicki W. (red.), 2001, Przemiany środowiska na Pogórzu Karpackim, t. 1, IGiGP UJ Kraków, s. 31-49.
Instytut Geografii i Gospodarki Przestrzennej UJ
Hydrochemiczna interpretacja wezbrań z lipca 1997 r. w zlewni Dworskiego Potoku (Pogórze Wiśnickie)
Czynniki dostawy fosforu do wód powierzchniowych na Pogórzu Karpackim
Wpływ pogłębiania się koryt karpackich dopływów Wisły na zmiany warunków sedymentacji pozakorytowej
Gospodarka rolna w rejonie Zbiornika Doczyckiego na Rabie
Zastosowanie autorskiej, automatycznej stacji meteorologiczne w badaniach wymiany energii między atmosferą a podłożem
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Ostatnia aktualizacja: 2018-07-17