Jackowski A. (red.), 1995, Zeszyt wielotematyczny, Peregrinus Cracoviensis, z.1.
Język publikacji: polski
"Peregrinus...Mundialis?... Polonus?... Cracoviensis?..."
Monastycyzm chrześcijański, geneza, formy, cel
Psychospołeczne aspekty pielgrzymowania do Rzymu
Przemiany w ruchu pielgrzymkowym na Jasną Górę w okresie II Rzeczypospolitej (1918-1939)
"Szlak ikon" w Euroregionie Karpackim (zarys koncepcji)
Kalwaria Pacławska - obrządek łaciński i greckokatolicki
Kalwaria Pacławska - the Roman-Catholic Rite and the Greek-Catholic One
Summary: The term 'Calvary' (pol. "Kalwaria") means not only the hill in Jeruzalem, but also the sites devoted to the worship of the Passion. Those sites were to be symbolic representations of that of Jerusalem. In the Western Europe calvaries appeared in the 15th c. The first one was built in 1405-1420 near Cordoba, in Spain. In Poland the worship of the Passion developed in the end of the 16th c., owing Bernardine monks. Another symptom of this workship was the establishing in 1595 The Archconfraternity of Passion in the Franciscans' church in Cracow. A foundation of Kalwaria Zebrzydowska by Mikołaj Zebrzydowski and an interception of it by Bernardines in the beginning of the 17th c. decisively influenced an appearance of other calvaries in Poland. The foundation of Kalwaria Pacławska by A.M.Fredro in 1668 was also made under the influence and according to the pattern of Kalwaria Zebrzydowska. The region of Przemyśl, where lies Kalwaria Pacławska, had peculiar conditions, which, together with the religious factor, influenced considerably a genesis of this sanctuary. The Franciscan Monastery with the calvary was to attract both pilgrims and merchants in the periods of indulgences. This was the economic factor of the location. More important even was the military one - that of defence against invasions of Tartars and Cossacks. Therefore A.M.Fredro decided to built at Kalwaria Pacławska a small fortress of the bastions type, not only for the local populations, but also for that from adjacent villages. The fortified monastery in the south-eastern Poland was usually the 'town-creating' factor. Settlers in such the locality could feel safetly. Those inhabitants were also the defensors of such the fortress. In the south-eastern sector of Poland problems of religion played then the considerable role. The Brześć Union (1596) subordinated the Ortodox Church in the area of Poland directly to the Holy See, although this Church kept its own liturgy and hierarchy. Also the founder of Kalwaria Pacławska took into consideration all above mentioned motives, those of religion, defence and settlement. The new worship centre became more know when the miraculous image of Holy Mary, was brought here from Kamieniec Podolski in 1679. All the villages close to Kalwaria Pacławska were founded earlier than it. They were mostly populated by Ruthenians, while Poles formed a minority. Also the Greek Catholic showed the considerable share among the pilgrims coming to Kalwaria Pacławska. They participated together with the Roman catholics in all the indulgence masses. In the 2nd half of the 19th c. the follow of pilgrims to Kalwaria Pacławska grew considerably and believers of two rites were separated since then. Before, clergyment of both the rites collaborated peacefully, but their relations deteriorated, as did the general relations of those rites in the whole Austrian Galicia in this period. In the case of Kalwaria Pacławska, another element of this conflict was connected with a conversion of the inhabitants of the Pacław village into the Roman Catholic rite and making this locality a part of the Kalwaria Pacławska parish. Disputes of clergy of both the rites lasted also in the 1919-39 period. There were pilgrims - sometimes more numerous than Poles - visiting the Greec-Catholic church. The problem was 'solved' in 1946, when Ruthenians were transferred to the Soviet Union, and the churches of the Greek-Catolic Church were destroyed. Kalwaria Pacławska became the pilgrimage centre of the Roman-Catholic Church.
Peregrinus Cracoviensis, 1995, z.1, s. 85-97.
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