Tradycje współczesność i przyszłość pielgrzymek w Kalwarii Zebrzydowskiej
Jackowski A. (red.), 1995, Tradycje współczesność i przyszłość pielgrzymek w Kalwarii Zebrzydowskiej, Peregrinus Cracoviensis, z.2.
Język publikacji: polski
Gdy myślę Kalwaria
Przemówienie na otwarcie sesji naukowej w Kalwarii Zebrzydowskiej dnia 24 kwietnia 1995 r.
Sanktuarium Kalwaryjskie jako umiłowane Sanktuarium Ojca Świętego Jana Pawła II
Geneza Kalwarii Zebrzydowskiej
Kalwaria jako polska Jerozolima
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, the Polish Jerusalem
Summary: When we say that Kalwaria Zebrzydowska is the 'Polish Jerusalem' we mean that the entire complex of churches and chapels stretching over an area some 7 km across was intended as a pictorial representation of the religious meaning a Christian associates with the places of worship connected with the Passion of Jesus Christ in its historical and geographical setting, Jerusalem. To the followers of Jesus these places have always had the value of a precious relic. However, in the past a pilgrimage to the Holy Land was hedged with colossal difficulties conected with the fact that the country was under Moslem rule, and also with the exorbitant costs which only very few could afford. Following the Council of Trent an idea emerged that it would be possible to practise the devotions to the Passion anywhere, through the use of a variety of religious symbols. A major contribution to this came from a Dutchman, Father Christian Adriani Cruys (died 1585), who is generally known by his Latin pen-name, Adrichomius. His book, Theatrum Terrae Sanctae, was one of the chief factors in the dissemination of the worship of the Passion of Christ throughout Europe in the 17th century, and in the setting up of Ways of the Cross. It is the flourishing of this type of devotion, propagated chiefly by the Franciscans, that is to be regarded as providing both the origins and the objective of the creation of Kalwaria Zebrzydowska. The founder of Kalwaria and its main loci for worship was Mikołaj Zebrzydowski, Lord Voivode of Cracow. The Voivode's castle stood at the top of a hill called Góra Lanckorona, to the west of which there is another hill, Góra Żarek. Zebrzydowski decided to build the Church of the Crucifixion and Jesus' Sepulchre on the southern slope of this hill. Soon, however, the scheme, which had initially been quite modest, grew into an ambitious enterprise for the erection of numerous chapels which would recall the various stages of Jesus' road to the Cross. A former courtier, Hieronim Strzała, who went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1599 and brought back a plaster model of the Church of the Crucifixion and Holy Sepulchre and of the other Stations of the Cross, helped in the implementation of the Voivode's plan. Work started in 1600. In this essay the hypothesis is put forward that an endeavour was made in the design and construction of Kalwaria Zebrzydowska to keep as close as possible to the topography of the original sites in Jerusalem in the times of Jesus. Of course full imitation was out of the question, but at least some general principles of approximation were adopted to make the location of the individual chapels 'true to life'. Perhaps these principles are manifest in the identification of the four 'Hills of Jerusalem' which formed the scene for the story of Holy Week. There is evidence to show that what was looked for were spots to symbolise: a) Mount Sion, with the Church of the Tabernacle located on it; b) the Mount of Olives, with the Garden of Gethsemane and the place where Jesus was arrested; c) Mount Moria, the location of the Temple of Solomon, on the eastern flank of which stood Antonius' keep, where Pilate tried and judged Jesus, condemning Him to death on the cross; d) Mount Golgotha (Calvary). The unbroken Christian tradition in Jerusalem preserved the memory of all of these places, but it was only in 313 A.D., after the Edict of Milan had been issued giving Christians the Emperor Constantine's guarantee of full freedom to practise their religion, that both Christian worship and the construction of Christian churches could come out into the open. It was Constantine the Great, too, with his mother, the Empress Helena, who founded a magnificent basilica church on the site of Jesus' death and burial, which would henceforth be one of the marvels of church architecture in the whole of Christendom. No wonder, then, that Mikołaj Zebrzydowski started his foundation with a replica of the Church of the Crucifixion and Holy Sepulchre. This was accomplished already in 1601. Other churches and chapels followed, and the main reference points for them were, as we have said, the other three 'Hills of Jerusalem', which in Zebrzydowski's design were given the names 'Mount Sion' (with the Church of the Tabernacle situated on it), 'the Mount of Olives' on the slopes of Lanckorona Hill, and 'Mount Moria' with 'Pilate's Chapel' (also called 'Pilate's Town Hall') on it. There is a fairly good analogy between the relative positions of these four hills in the Southern Polish countryside and the original models in Jerusalem. This also helped with the layout of the other points on the Paths of Jesus and on the Paths of Mary. Today they form a closelyknit religious composition set in a beautiful environment, which for four centuries now has offered thousands of pilgrims the chance to follow in the footsteps of Jesus on His way to the Cross, and of His Sorrowful Mother, along the way which for all Christians is the road to the Eternal Sion (Rev. 21: 1-4).
Peregrinus Cracoviensis, 1995, z.2, s. 27-37.
Instytut Geografii i Gospodarki Przestrzennej UJ
Kalwaryjskie drogi pielgrzymkowe"ogrodami modlitwy" (na przykładzie "Dróżek" Kalwarii Zebrzydowskiej)
Perspektywy rozwoju Kalwarii Zebrzydowskiej jako ośrodka pielgrzymkowego
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska w sieci ośrodków pielgrzymkowych w Polsce i w Europie
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska na tle innych ośrodków pielgrzymkowych w Karpatach Polskich
Więzi Kalwarii Zebrzydowskiej z Jasną Górą
Porozumienie miast i gmin - ośrodków kultu religijnego w Polsce
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska i Kalwaria Pacławska - podobieństwa i różnice
Legendy o cudownych wizerunkach Matki Bożej na Polskim Podkarpaciu
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska jako wzór dla innych kalwarii na ziemiach polskich
Zamknięcie Sesji Naukowej Konwersatorium Pielgrzymkowego w Kalwarii Zebrzydowskiej
Sprawozdanie z Konwersatorium Pielgrzymkowego
O. Stanisław Szydełko (1935-1995)
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