Bilska-Wodecka E., Sołjan I. (red.), 2008 , Peregrinus Cracoviensis, z. 19.
Recenzje: prof. dr hab. Antoni Jackowski, ks. prof. dr hab. Maciej Ostrowski
Język publikacji: polski
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Roadside shrines and crosses in the High Bieszczady Mts
Summary: Roadside shrines and figures are small-scale detached structures of Christian sacred architecture. They have varied shapes and may be in the form of a house-shrine, box-shrine or niche-shrine, or a roadside figure. In 2007, 59 roadside shrines and crosses were identified in the area discussed, 44 (or 74%) of which dated back to before 1939. Most often historic landmarks of this type are in the form of roadside crosses (37). The largest number of roadside crosses has been found in the eastern part of the region, while in its western part, house-shrines and box-shrines have been more numerous. However, there were very few of them generally. Usually they are situated by holy springs or on mountain passes. Due to the intertwining of the Byzantine and Latin traditions in the region, iconography and architectural styles typical of both Eastern and Western culture can be retraced in the area discussed, as usual with a borderland area. Latin crosses are most popular, however, with a figure of Christ which is typical of both Eastern and Western iconography. Metal crosses set on pedestals hewn in local sandstone are found here relatively often. Renowned stonemason's workshops in the region were found in Sambor and Turca, and foundries in Cisna and Turca. Linden and ash trees, and sometimes also fruit trees, used to be planted around roadside shrines and crosses in the Bieszczady. Crosses were believed to have sacred powers, so they were installed at any place where evil was expected to nest. Road junctions and borders of hamlets and villages had a particularly bad reputation. Roadside shrines were often fixed on trees or built by water springs. In the Bieszczady region crosses were often built on the sites of battles or marked the graves of those who fell in battle, as a memento of a historic event for the generations to come. The abolishment of serfdom in 1848 was an important event for village communities. To commemorate this event, "serfdom crosses" were once built. Votive crosses were also to be seen in almost every village. As a result of the development of the post-war settlement system, as can be seen in the sacred landscape of the Western Bieszczady Mts, the region's features of transition between East and West have been gradually erased and it is now more uniform. New roadside shrines do not draw on their historic traditions. New architectural forms of roadside shrines have appeared. They are typical of the present era and take the form of metal crosses on mountain tops (the cross on Mt Tarnica, which alludes to the crosses on Mounts Giewont, Smerek and Halicz), as well as shrines in the form of rock caves, and V-shaped shrines with wooden crosses. Many local residents care for abandoned roadside crosses and shrines. However, there are only scarce resources available for conservation, in particular in non-inhabited areas, so there are fewer and fewer such structures in Beszczady's landscapes. This is why their preservation as well as photographic and historical documentation are of major importance.
Peregrinus Cracoviensis, 2008, z. 19, s. 145-160.
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