Mika M. (red.), 2011 , Prace Geograficzne, z. 125.
Język publikacji: polski
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Evaluation of tourist attractiveness of ski resorts with regard to their competitiveness - a comparative study of Szczyrk and Białka Tatrzańska
Summary: The dynamic development of ski infrastructure in the Polish Carpathians is changing the existing structure of relationships among ski stations and their hierarchy in the system of tourist reception. Currently, one of the indicators of the stations' functioning is free market competitiveness and competition in the field of incoming tourism. One of the elements fundamental to the formation of competitiveness of tourist localities is their tourist attractiveness. The aim of this study is to present the evaluation of the attractiveness of Szczyrk and Białka Tatrzańska as ski stations in the light of opinions expressed by users of ski areas. The chosen ski stations represent two generations of Polish winter tourism centres in the Carpathians. Both localities also represent different models of functioning of ski tourism sector. Szczyrk is one of the best developed ski stations in Poland. The system of ski lifts and skiing routes within its area was formed in 1970s. In the 2009/2010 season, downhill skiing infrastructure in Szczyrk consisted of 34 ski lifts of total length of 24.1 kilometres and the capacity of 18.4 thousand persons per hour, as well as 31 skiing routes of total length of 41.3 kilometres. The largest ski resort in Szczyrk is Czyrna-Solisko with its 13 ski lifts and nearly 22 kilometres of ski routes, which can be accessed with one ski pass. From the technical point of view, the majority of ski lifts in Szczyrk are low quality T-bar lifts and platter lifts (94.1%). Skiing routes vary regarding levels of difficulty. Merely 10 routes can be accessed by skiers after nightfall, and only approximately 30% of the total length of the routes is equipped with snow cannons. Białka Tatrzańska has had a long tradition of development as a summer-resort village of the Podhale. High dynamics in the development of ski infrastructure in Białka Tatrzańska has been observed in the last decade, when as many as 10 modern ski lifts have been installed, half of which are high quality chair lifts. In the 2009/2010 season, the ski infrastructure was represented by 18 ski lifts with the capacity of 19.6 thousand persons per hour and 17 skiing routes of total length of 10.1 kilometres. Further development of skiing infrastructure in this locality is planned for the coming seasons. The major ski centres in Białka are Kotelnica Białczańska, Bania and Kaniówka. They were opened at the initiative of village residents. The routes offered by these centres are mainly easy and very easy ones and all of them can be accesses with one ski pass. All ski lifts and skiing routes in these centres are electrically lit, and approximately 75% of the total length of the routes is equipped with snow cannons. The specificity of tourist attractiveness of the evaluated ski stations is represented by our respondents' reasons (table 2) for choosing a place to practice skiing or snowboarding. The factors contributing to the choice of Szczyrk are the following: favourable location in relation to the source areas of (ski) tourist flow as well as the well-developed system of routes and ski lifts. In case of Białka Tatrzańska the factors that attract tourists are the following: modern, well-organized system of routes and ski lifts as well as conditions favourable for less experienced skiers, which is an especially important factor from the perspective of family tourism and organization of recreation for children and youth. In case of both stations, there is a diversity regarding skiing abilities of the interviewed subjects. In case of Szczyrk, there are average and experienced skiers, whereas in Białka the subjects are characterized by low and average skiing abilities. Tourists' stays in Szczyrk are mostly short-term and characterized by higher return frequency, as opposed to Białka, which is mostly visited once a year for a few days' stay. The study has confirmed that, irrespective of the objectively existing conditions and their subjective evaluation, an important factor contributing to the choice of place to go skiing is the recommendation of third parties. The presented sets of advantages of the evaluated stations and skiing areas constitute factors shaping their competitiveness; along with their unique characteristics, such as e.g. scenic assets of skiing routes, they form a set of comparative (competitive) advantages in competition and attraction of tourists. On the other hand, all disadvantages and shortcomings worsening the quality of recreation lower the stations' competitiveness.
Słowa kluczowe: stacje narciarskie, konkurencyjność turystyczna, atrakcyjność turystyczna, Szczyrk, Białka Tatrzańska
Słowa kluczowe (w języku angielskim): ski resorts, tourist competitiveness, tourist attractiveness, Szczyrk, Białka Tatrzańska
Prace Geograficzne, 2011, z. 125, s. 95-110.
Instytut Geografii i Gospodarki Przestrzennej UJ
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